Late prehistory in fiction


Arnold, Bettina. 'The Past as Propaganda: Totalitarian Archaeology in Nazi Germany.' Antiquity 64, no. 244 (1990): 464-78.

Cai, Hua and Asti Hustvedt. A Society without Fathers or Husbands: the Na of China. Translated by Hustvedt, Asti. . New York: Zone Books, 2002.

Clark, Grahame. World prehistory in new perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Harrell, S. 'A Society without Fathers or Husbands: The Na of China.' 104, no. 3 (2002): 982-983.

Jones, S. 'Transhumance Re-examined.' 11, no. 2 (2005): 357-360.

Rowley-Conwy, Peter. 'The concept of prehistory and the invention of the terms 'prehistoric' and 'prehistorian': the Scandanavian origin, 1833-1850.' European Journal of Archaeology 9, no. 1 (2006): 103-130.

Sahlins, M. Stone Age Economics. : Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.

Sahlins, Marshall David. Stone age economics. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972.

Schnurbein, S V. 'Shamanism in the Old Norse tradition: a theory between ideological camps.' 43, no. 2 (2003): 116-138.

Van Dyke, Ruth M. and Reinhard Bernbeck. Subjects and Narratives in Archaeology. Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2015.


Comparative linguistics and archaeology

Anthony, David W. The Horse, the Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppe Shaped the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Colin Renfrew, , Ian Todd and Ruth Tringham. 'Beyond a Subsistence Economy: The Evolution of Social Organization in Prehistoric Europe.' Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies 20, no. (1974): .

Coward, F, S Shennan, S Colledge, J Conolly and M Collard. 'The spread of Neolithic plant economies from the Near East to northwest Europe: a phylogenetic analysis.' Journal of Archaeological Science 35, no. 1 (2008): 42-56.

Fortson, B W. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction. : Wiley-Blackwell, 2004.

Gamkrelidze, Thomas V., Vjaceslav V. Ivanov and Johanna Nicholas. Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture; Part I, The Text. Translated by Nicholas, Johanna. . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995.

Garrett, A. 'Convergence in the formation of Indo-European subgroups: Phylogeny and chronology.' , no. (2006): 139-151.

Kortlandt, F. 'The spread of the Indo-Europeans.' 18, no. (1990): 131-140.

Lehmann, W P. 'Contemporary linguistics and Indo-European studies.' 87, no. 5 (1972): 976-993.

Mallory, J P. In search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth. London: Thames & Hudson, 1989.

Malmström, H, A Linderholm, K Lidén, J Storå, P Molnar, G Holmlund, M Jakobsson and A Götherström. 'High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe.' 10, no. 1 (2010): 89-89.

Manzura, Igor. 'Steps to the steppe: Or, how the north pontic region was colonised.' Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24, no. 4 (2005): 313-338.

Manzura, Igor and Kathie Judelsen. 'Cultural groups from the steppes of eastern Europe in the Eneolithic period and Early Bronze Age.' Oxford Journal of Archaeology 13, no. (1994): 265-277.

Marler, Joan. 'The Beginnings of Patriarchy in Europe: Reflections on the Kurgan Theory of Marija Gimbutas.' In The Rule of Mars: The History and Impact of Patriarchy, edited by Biaggi, Christina. , 53-75. Manchester, CT: Knowledge, Ideas & Trends, 2006.

Meyer, C, G Brandt, W Haak, R A Ganslmeier, H Meller and K W Alt. 'The Eulau eulogy: Bioarchaeological interpretation of lethal violence in Corded Ware multiple burials from Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.' 28, no. 4 (2009): 412-423.

Miller, N F. 'Sweeter than wine? The use of the grape in early western Asia.' 82, no. (2008): 937-946.

Morgunova, N L and O S Khokhlova. 'Kurgans and nomads: new investigations of mound burials in the southern Urals.' 80, no. 308 (2006): 303-303.

Nordquist, G and H Whittaker. 'Comments on Kristian Kristiansen and Thomas B. Larsson (2005): The Rise of Bronze Age Society. Travels, Transmissions and Transformations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.' 40, no. 1 (2007): 75-84.

Phillips, Patricia. The Prehistory of Europe. London: Allen Lane, 1980.

Cultural Transformations in the Black Sea Steppe Between the Eneolothic and Bronze Age: Migrations or Economic Changes? | {:date=>"2006", :pages=>"448-448", :publisher=>"Brill", :title=>"Cultural Transformations in the Black Sea Steppe Between the Eneolothic and Bronze Age: Migrations or Economic Changes?", :kind=>"conference_paper", :creators=>[{:first_name=>"Yuri", :last_name=>"Rassamakin", :kind=>"author"}]}

Shennan, S. 'Central Europe in the third millennium BC: An evolutionary trajectory for the beginning of the European Bronze Age.' Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5, no. 2 (1986): 115-146.

Smitherman, T and J BARODAL. 'Typological changes in the evolution of Indo-European syntax?.' 26, no. 2 (2009): 253-273.

Sognnes, Kalle. 'Stability & Change in Scandinavian Rock-Art: The Case of Bardal in Trøndelag, Norway.' 79, no. (2008): 230-245.

Telegin, D Y. 'The Yamna Culture and the Indo-European Homeland Problem.' 33, no. 3/4 (2005): 339-339.

Watkins, C. The American heritage dictionary of Indo-European roots. : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000.

Zvelebil, M. 'Mobility, contact, and exchange in the Baltic Sea basin 6000-2000 BC.' Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25, no. 2 (2006): 178-192.

Comparative poetics

Baldick, J. Homer and the Indo-Europeans: comparing mythologies. : IB Tauris, 1994.

Evans, D. 'Agamemnon and the Indo-European Threefold Death Pattern.' 19, no. 2 (1979): 153-166.

Hiltebeitel, A. 'Comparing Indo-European "Epics".' History of Religions 15, no. 1 (1975): 90-100.

Hiltebeitel, A. 'Rama and Gilgamesh: The Sacrifices of the Water Buffalo and the Bull of Heaven.' History of Religions 19, no. 3 (1980): 187-223.

Kabell, Aage. Metrische Studien I. Der Alliterationsvers.. Munich: Fink, 1978.

Kershaw, Kris. The One-Eyed God: Odin and the (Indo-)Germanic Männerbünde. : Journal of Indo-European Studies, 2000.

Lincoln, Bruce. 'The Center of the World and the Origins of Life.' History of Religions 40, no. 4 (2001): 311-326.

Lincoln, Bruce. 'The Lord of the Dead.' History of Religions 20, no. 3 (1981): 224-241.

Lincoln, Bruce. 'Kinship Codes, Social Codes, and Indo-European Myth.' History of Religions 26, no. 4 (1987): 422-426.

Lincoln, Bruce. 'The Indo-European myth of creation.' History of Religions 15, no. 2 (1975): 121-145.

Lincoln, Bruce. 'The Indo-European cattle-raiding myth.' History of Religions 16, no. 1 (1976): 42-65.

Littleton, C. S.. 'Some Possible Indo-European Themes in the Iliad.' In Myth and Law Among the Indo-Europeans, edited by Puhvel, J.. , 229-46. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Matasović, Ranko. 'A Reader in Comparative Indo-European Mythology.' Religion , no. (2009): .

Nagy, G.. Comparative Studies in Greek and Indic Meter. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.

O'Flaherty, W D. 'Dionysus and Siva: Parallel Patterns in Two Pairs of Myths.' History of Religions 20, no. 1 (1980): 81-111.

Puhvel, J. Comparative mythology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

Suzuki, S. 'The Indo-European basis of Germanic alliterative verse.' Lingua 75, no. 1 (1988): 1-24.

Walcot, P. 'Cattle Raiding, Heroic Tradition, and Ritual: The Greek Evidence.' History of Religions 18, no. 4 (1979): 326-351.

Wanner, Kevin J. 'God on the Margins: Dislocation and Transience in the Myths of Odin.' History of Religions 46, no. 4 (2007): 316-350.

Wanner, Kevin J. 'Cunning Intelligence in Norse Myth: Loki, Óðinn, and the Limits of Sovereignty.' 48, no. 3 (2009): 211-246.

Watkins, C. How to kill a dragon: Aspects of Indo-European poetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

West, Emily. 'Circe, Calypso, Hidimba: The Odyssey and Graeco-Aryan Proto-Epic.' Journal of Indo-European Studies 42, no. 1/2 (2014): 144-174.

West, M. L.. Indo-European poetry and myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

da Silva, Sara Graça and Jamshid J. Tehrani. 'Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales.' Royal Society Open Science 3, no. 1 (01/2016): 150645.

Fictional works

Anfosso, Fabrice. Là où la Terre touche le Ciel. Saint-Laurent-du-Var: Mémoires Millénaires Editions, 2007.

Auel, Jean M.. Clan of the Cave Bear. : Crown, 1980.

Berthoud, Samuel-Henri. 'Les premiers habitants de Paris.' In L'Homme depuis cinq mille ans, 26-72. Paris: Garnier Freres, 1865.

Boitard, Pierre. Études antédiluviennes - Paris avant les hommes. L'homme fossile. Etc. Paris: Passard, 1861.

Chevillard, Eric and Alyson Waters. Prehistoric Times. Translated by Waters, Alyson. . New York: Archipelago, 2012.

Cornwall, Bernard. Stonehenge. London: HarperCollins, 1999.

Crace, Jim. The Gift of Stones. London: Vintage, 1988.

Cranile, Adrien. Solutré, ou les chasseurs de rennes de la France centrale. Histoire préhistorique. Paris: L. Hachette, 1872.

Elphinstone, Margaret. The Gathering Night. Edinburgh: Canongate, 2009.

Fidler, Kathleen. The Boy with the Bronze Axe. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968.

Golding, William. The Inheritors. London: Faber and Faber, 1955.

H.G. Wells, et. al.. 'Tales of Space and Time.' Science , no. (1900): .

Hoshikawa, Jun. Beringia, Bridge of Spirits. San Francisco: Viz Media, 1998.

Jensen, Johannes V. The Long Journey. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945.

Mackey, Mary. The Year the Horses Came. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1993.

Monbarlet, J. -Valéry. L'âge antéhistorique: poème. Bergerac: Faisandier, 1867.

Moore, Alan. Voice of the Fire. Marietta GA: Top Shelf Productions, 1996.

Rosny, J.-H.. Eyrimah. Paris: Chailley, 1896.

Rosny, J.-H.. La Guerre de feu. Paris: Fasquelle, 1911.

Serres, Karin. Luniq: précédé de Katak. Quimper: Très tôt théâtre éditions, 1995.

Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. Reindeer Moon. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Waterloo, Stanley. A Son of the Ages, the reincarnations and adventures of Scar, the link; a story of man from the beginning. Garden City: Doubleday, 1914.

Wells, H. G.. 'The Grisly Folk.' In Selected Short Stories, 258-99. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1958.

Williams, Raymond. People of the Black Mountains I: The Beginning. London: Chatto and Windus, 1989.

Historical drama

Historical fiction

Baumgarten, M.. 'The Historical Novel: Some Postulates.' Clio 4, no. (1975): 173-182.

Brady, Patrick. Memory and History as Fiction: An Archetypal Approach to the Historical Novel. Knoxville: New Paradigm, 1993.

Butterfield, Herbert. The Historical Novel: An Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1924.

Conroy, Thom. 'History, Historical Fiction and 'Phenomenological Longing'.' In Minding the Gap: Writing Across Thresholds and Fault Lines, edited by Conroy, Thom and Gail Pittaway. , 43-52. : Cambridge Scholars Press, 2015.

De Groot, Jerome. The Historical Novel. London: Routledge, 2009.

Doležel, Lubomír. 'Possible Worlds of Fiction and History.' New Literary History 29, no. 4 (1998): 785-809.

Elias, A. 'Metahistorical romance, the historical sublime, and dialogic history.' Rethinking History 9, no. 2-3 (2005): 159-172.

Jameson, Fredric. 'The Historical Novel Today, or, Is It Still Possible?.' In The Antimonies of Realism, 259-314. London: Verso, 2015.

Johnson, Sarah L.. Historical Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited, 2005.

Krieger, Murray. 'Fiction, History, and Empirical Reality.' Critical Inquiry 1, no. (1974): .

Lukács, Georg. The Historical Novel. Boston: Beacon Press, 1963.

Lukács, Georg. The Historical Novel. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981.

Nagy, Ladislav. 'Historical Fiction as a Mixture of History and Romance: Towards the Genre Definition of the Historical Novel.' Prague Journal of English Studies 3, no. 1 (2014): .

O'Brien, Karen. 'History and the Novel in Eighteenth-Century Britain.' Huntington Library Quarterly 68, no. 1-2 (03/2005): 397-413.

Pihlainen, Kalle. 'The confines of the form: historical writing and the desire that it be what it is not.' In Tropes for the past: Hayden White and the History / Literature Debate, edited by Korhonen, Kuisma. , 55-67. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2006.

Polack, Gillian. History and Fiction: Writers, their Research, Worlds and Stories. Bern: Peter Lang, 2016.

Rice, Mary. 'The Failure of Metaphor as an Historical Paradigm: Flaubert's _Salammbô_.' Modern Language Studies 20, no. 1 (1990): 95-99.

Shaw, Harry E. 'Is There a Problem with Historical Fiction (or with Scott’ s Redgauntlet)?.' Rethinking History 9, no. 2 (2005): 173-195.

Shaw, Harry E.. The Forms of Historical Fiction. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Stocker, Bryony D.. ''Bygonese'--Is this Really the Authentic Language of Historical Fiction?.' New Writing: The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing 9, no. 3 (2012): 308-318.

Thom, J A. The Art and Craft of Writing Historical Fiction: Researching and Writing Historical Fiction. : F+W Media, 2010.

Turner, Joseph W.. 'The Kinds of Historical Fiction: An Essay in Definition and Methodology.' Genre 12, no. (1979): 333-355.

Tyynelä, Jenni and Tim De Mey. 'History's demarcation problem.' History and Theory 51, no. 2 (2012): 270-279.

Wesseling, Elisabeth. Writing History as a Prophet: Postmodernist Innovations of the Historical Novel. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1991.

Wisner, Buell. 'Peter Ackroyd's The House of Doctor Dee and the Antimonies of Postmodern Historical Fiction.' CEA Critic 76, no. 3 (2014): 299-304.


Pihlainen, Kalle. The work of history: constructivism and a politics of the past. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.

White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1975.

White, Hayden. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1987.

White, Hayden. Tropics of Discourse. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

Literary theory

Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

Bell, Alice and Marie-Laure Ryan. Possible Worlds Theory and Contemporary Narratology. Lincoln: UNP - Nebraska, 2019.

Booth, Wayne C.. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Brecht, Bertolt. 'Against Georg Lukács.' New Left Review 84, no. (1974): 39-53.

Băniceru, Ana Cristina. 'Going Back to One’s Roots: The Revival of Oral Storytelling Techniques in The English Contemporary Novel.' Romanian Journal of English Studies 9, no. 1 (2012-01-1): .

Den Tandt, Christophe. 'Return to Mimesis: Georg Lukács and Erich Auerbach in the Wake of Postmodernity.' , no. (2005): .

Derrida, Jacques. 'The Law of Genre.' Critical Inquiry 7, no. 1 (1980): 55-81.

Doležel, Lubomír. Heterocosmica: Fiction and Possible Worlds. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Engels, Friedrich. 'Letter to Margaret Harkness.' , no. (1888): .

Fludernik, Monika. 'New Wine in Old Bottles? Voice, Focalization and New Writing.' New Literary History 32, no. 3 (2001): 619-638.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.

Genette, Gérard. Narrative Discourse. : Cornell University Press, 1983.

Genette, Gérard. 'Genres, 'Types', Modes.' Poétique. Revue de Théorie et d'Analyse Littéraires Paris 32, no. (1977): 389-421.

Hay, John. 'Plotting Devices: Literary Darwinism in the Laboratory.' Philosophy and Literature 38, no. 1A (2014): A148--A161.

Iser, Wolfgang. The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

Jameson, Fredric. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Krieger, Murray. 'Fiction, History, and Empirical Reality.' Critical Inquiry 1, no. (1974): .

Lukacs, Georg. The Theory of the Novel. London: Merlin Press, 1971.

Nelles, William. 'Historical and Implied Readers and Authors.' Comparative Literature 45, no. 1 (2014): 22-46.

Nünning, Ansgar. 'Where Historiographic Metafiction and Narratology Meet: Towards an Applied Cultural Narratology.' Style 38, no. 3 (2004): 352-374.

Pavel, Thomas G.. '"Possible Worlds" in Literary Semantics.' The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 34, no. 2 (1975): 165-176.

Prince, Gerald. 'Introduction à l’étude du narrataire.' Poétique 14, no. (1973): 178-96.

Ryan, Marie-Laure. 'Possible Worlds.' The Living Handbook of Narratology , no. (2013): .

Todorov, Tzvetan. 'Literary genres.' In The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre, 3-23. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Warhol, Robyn R.. '"Reader, Can You Imagine? No, You Cannot": The Narratee as Other in Harriet Jacobs's Text.' Narrative 3, no. 1 (1995): 57-72.


Donald, John. 'Echinopsis, Lobivia, Rebutia: Where to draw the line?.' The Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain 39, no. 1 (1977): 11-13.

Magris, Claudio. Danube: A Sentimental Journey from the Source to the Black Sea. London: Harvill Press, 2011.


Finnegan, Ruth. Literacy and Orality: Studies in the Technology of Communication. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: 30th Anniversary Edition. Oxford: Routledge, 2012.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Parry, Milman. The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.


Hanson, Kristin. 'Quantitative meter in English: the lesson of Sir Philip Sidney.' English Language and Linguistics 5, no. 01 (5/2001): .

Jarvis, Simon. 'Why rhyme pleases.' , no. 2011 (): 17-43.

Newell, W. W.. 'Theories of DIffusion of Folk-Tales.' The Journal of American Folklore 8, no. 28 (1895): 7-18.

Weiskott, Eric. English Alliterative Verse: Poetic Tradition and Literary History. : , 2016.

Prehistoric fiction

Andrade, Glenna M.. 1998 '(Re)envisioned (pre)history: Feminism, goddess politics, and readership analysis of Jean M. Auel's "The Clan of the Cave Bear" and "The Valley of the Horses".' PhD diss., University of Rhode Island.

Angenot, Marc and Nadia Khouri. 'An International Bibliography of Prehistoric Fiction.' Science Fiction Studies 8, no. 1 (1981): 38-53.

Benhaïm, André and Michel Lantelme. Écrivains de la préhistoire. Toulouse: PU du Mirail, 2004.

Blair, Michael T.. 1990 'Ancestral signs: Representations of prehistoric people in American culture.' PhD diss., .

Carroll, Joseph. 'Adaptationist Criteria of Literary Value: Assessing Kurtén’s Dance of the Tiger, Auel’s The Clan of the Cave Bear, and Golding’s The Inheritors.' In Literary Darwinism: Evolution, human nature, and literature, 163-185. London: Routledge, 2004.

De Felici, Roberta. 'Émotions et langages dans le roman préhistorique de J.-H. Rosny ainé.' In L'Homme préhistorique. Images et imaginaire, edited by Ducros, Albert and Jacqueline Ducros. , 243-271. Paris: Editions L'Harmattan, 2000.

De Paolo, Charles. Human Prehistory in Fiction. Jefferson: McFarland, 2003.

Ducros, Albert and Jacqueline Ducros. 'L'homme fossile, cet inconnu.' In L'Homme Préhistorique: Images et imaginaire, 9-22. : , 2000.

Elphinstone, Margaret and Caroline Wickham-Jones. 'Archaeology and fiction.' Antiquity 86, no. (2012): 532-537.

Guillaumie, M.. Le roman préhistorique: essai de définition d'un genre, essai d'histoire d'un mythe. : PULIM, 2006.

Guillaumie, Marc. 2000 'Le roman prehistorique a partir des premiers romans prehistoriques francais (1872-1914).' PhD diss., Universite de Limoges (France).

Guillen, Michael L.. 'The Earthsong Trilogy.' ReVision 21, no. 3 (1999): 23-30.

Houe, Poul. 'Johannes V. Jensen's Long Journey or Postmodernism Under Way.' Scandinavian Studies 64, no. 1 (1992): 96-128.

Hummler, M.. 'New Book Chronicle.' Antiquity 83, no. (2009): 562-63.

James, Edward. 'Review: The Fire in the Stone by Nicholas Ruddick.' Journal of the Fantatic in the Arts 21, no. 3 (2010): 455-458.

Khouri, Nadia and Marc Angenot. 'The Discourse of Prehistoric Anthroplogy.' Minnesota Review , no. 19 (1982): 112-131.

Kraemer, Christine Hoff. 'Gender Essentialism in Matriarchalist Utopian Fantasies: Are popular novels vehicles of sacred stories, or purely propaganda?.' Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 11, no. 2 (2009): .

Mandala, Susan. '"Listening" to the Neanderthals in William Golding’s The Inheritors: A sociopragmatic approach to fictional dialogue.' Discourse, Context & Media , no. (2017): .

Margolis, Jon. 'Gyno-supremacism Engenders a Political Revolt.' Chicago Herald Tribune, January 30 1995: .

Nelson, N. C.. 'Review: The Long Journey by Johannes V. Jensen.' American Anthropologist 48, no. 1 (1946): 94-97.

Ransom, Amy J.. 'Will the Real Rosny aîné Please Step Forward?.' Extrapolation 54, no. 3 (2013): 291-300.

Ruddick, Nicholas. Fire in the Stone: Prehistoric Fiction from Charles Darwin to Jean M. Auel. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2010.

Somerset, Richard. 'Fictionalising Human Origins.' Lines 3, no. (2007): .

Wilcox, Clyde. 'Prehistoric Gender Politics.' Extrapolation 40, no. 4 (1999): 325-333.


Horstmann, Jan. 'The Visual as Part of the Multichannel Performative Narration in Theatre Stagings.' , no. (2016): 21.